Here’s Some Things I’ve Changed My Mind About

I’ve said a lot of things on this blog over the nearly ten years since I started it. During that time, I’ve written thousands of articles. Most of them directly or indirectly express my beliefs about the world. I’ve talked about psychology, learning, philosophy and which techniques I think work and which don’t.

Unfortunately, a lot of my beliefs are probably wrong. This is true of anyone, but perhaps more so of someone who isn’t a specialist researcher on any of the topics he writes about. Sometimes I get new evidence that a previous belief I had was wrong, and I make an effort to update it in a new blog post, as I did when I switched my opinion from advocating speed reading to seriously doubting its efficacy.

But most of the time I change my beliefs the old posts remain unchanged. Carefully combing over a thousand articles for updates in belief that may or may not their change their thesis is completely impractical. Also, often my beliefs change by a matter of degree, not a 180 flip, so it’s not possible to expressed new shades of belief without completely rewriting all the articles.

Despite the impracticality of ensuring that every article I’ve written faithfully represents my current best estimate of how the world works, people still read many of my archived posts. So there’s a tendency to think that something I’ve written eight years ago is exactly how I see the world today.

A good compromise to reduce this problem, is to simply post an article every so often which includes beliefs I’ve changed my mind about, or at least started to doubt. That way you can see the directions of my thinking over time.

Things I’ve Changed My Mind About

Here’s a few things, where I’ve changed my beliefs. These are situations where I’ve either flipped my opinion about a subject, or at least changed it considerably enough that I would have written things differently if I had to redo them.

  1. Speed reading doesn’t work. I used to think it helped, based on personal experience. Deeper research and longer-term personal experience now tell me it has pretty limited use.
  2. IQ does matter. I’ve argued in the past against IQ, and in particular, the lay interpretation of it being up to 80% heritable. I’ve now been persuaded that it’s one of the success stories of psychometrics, it predicts an enormous amount of things and there is good reason to believe much of it can be reduced to a common g-factor.
  3. Repetition is important for learning. I used to be against mindless repetition as a way of not understanding a concept. I still think there are problems with rote memorization of concepts, but repetition is good for learning even when you are trying to understand things.
  4. The key to learning well is not connections but practice. I still believe holistic learning matters, but I see it more as a side-player than as the main phenomenon. Practice, in the form of active recall and problem solving, was the dominant method I used in both the MIT Challenge and the year without English.
  5. Innate, immutable ability does matter for success. I’ve previously taken positions arguing against focusing on talent or innate ability that we don’t have the power to change. Now I have a more moderate opinion where I see both effort and talent playing roles.
  6. Long-term perfectionism has dangerous side effects. I’ve previously argued in favor of being a long-term perfectionist. While I still think it’s important to strive for continual growth, I’ve since become better informed on the research on perfectionism and how it often has effects which go far beyond not getting your work out there.
  7. I don’t believe free, online education will replace universities. I think challenges like the MIT Challenge will probably stay niche. Computer science is a possible exception, but for the purposes of employment, coding bootcamps are more efficient than a comp sci degree.
  8. I believe much of formal education is signalling. Signalling is the theory that people get useless educations to signal their ability and conformity. It’s contrasted to human capital theories where people gain useful skills from school. Having done one real degree and one simulated degree now, I believe there are many interesting things to learn, but they probably don’t improve labor productivity in most cases.
  9. I believe it takes much longer than 30 days to form a habit. Thirty day trials are still probably useful for experiments, but if you are certain you want a sustained habit, the real interval may be more like six months.
  10. Vegetarianism alone is probably not the healthiest diet, or necessarily the simplest constraint for optimizing health. Simple carbs and sugars appear to be greater enemies than animal products in the quest for health. This doesn’t mean a vegetarian diet isn’t healthy, just that if you were picking constraints on eating it might not be the first choice. It also doesn’t mean the ecological and ethical arguments for vegetarianism are invalid. I’m currently pescetarian, and have no plans to change this.
  11. Asian languages are much harder to learn than European ones. I never held the belief that they were equally difficult, but setting up for the year without English I underestimated how big the gap was. I think 9-12 months would have been acceptable for Vat and I to reach the same level in Korean or Chinese as we did in Spanish.

Things I’ve Been Questioning Lately

In addition to those beliefs that I’ve gathered enough evidence on to change my mind, I’ve also had a lot more open questions—areas I hadn’t thought about deeply or beliefs I have that I’m currently feeling some doubt. These are areas where I see myself easily being persuaded in either direction, so I have less certainty about them.

  1. Is anxiety necessary for success? I’ve written about this recently. I unfortunately chose to use the word stress in that article (rather than anxiety), but the argument is otherwise the same.
  2. Is willpower or energy a depletable resource? I’ve long been a fan of energy management. Although the concept, is more self-help than hard science, I saw a connection to Baumeister’s work on ego depletion. Now it looks like that theory is under some serious scrutiny.
  3. Is a growth mindset actually helpful for success? This one also seemed obviously true to me, but Scott Alexander raises some good critiques. With the dismal replication performance of psychology experiments in the news lately and a lot of the experiments coming from one group of researchers, I’m less confident of this than I was before.
  4. Are a lot of “good” habits just signalling attempts? Maybe I’ve just been reading too much Robin Hanson, but he does provide a convincing explanation of why we often don’t things we think we should. The reason being, that we don’t actually want to do those things, but want to seem like we do, so we make striving to do those things part of our conscious self-presentation but subconsciously sabotage ourselves in actually doing them. Some possible examples: reading more books, not watching television, giving to charity.
  5. Does free will exist? Does the self? This is one I’ve gone back and forth on. I began straightforwardly believing that free will doesn’t exist, since the universe is either deterministic or random. Then believing in a compatabilist definition which redefines free will to be a useful concept if not having any cosmic significance. Now, rereading Buddhist and Taoist ideas, I’m wondering whether these ideas are even necessary, given their seemingly many self-contradictions.

The Perils of Intellectual Consistency

I’m sure some of these ideas I’ve switched on, including ones I advocated strongly for, have probably surprised a few long-time readers. People like to be able to group the people they know in a consistent fashion, saying I’m the person who believes in X or writes about Y. If I suddenly express a view saying I believe in not-X, that’s understandably confusing and upsetting.

The other reason I believe we value consistency is that we equate consistency with competence. People whose beliefs flip back and forth are those who don’t have much experience in the matter. In theory at least, gaining more experience and research should drive you closer to the truth of the matter. In this way, those who are inconsistent are also usually ignorant and incompetent.

That may be the case, but I suspect that trying to defend consistency invites a worse sin, where you ignore evidence that doesn’t fit your preexisting worldview. I’d rather be ignorant in appearance than dishonest in actuality.

I hope that this public update of my beliefs will be a regular occurrence on the blog, something I do every year or two, capturing the changes in my best understanding of the subjects I write about that don’t make there way into full articles. I hope it also shows that learning is a messy business, reinforcing some beliefs while casting doubt on others. The path to the truth is rarely a straight line.

  • kok ming

    as a self help and science guy , I think your post is freaking belonging to the realm of enlightening one amongst the sea of popcorn self help articles i have seen. I have recommended your blog to two person i know where one is quite deep thinker cum writer and the second is someone whom I have met personally and have same beliefs as me.
    Thanks! really a lot of good stuff for me to reflect upon.

    Hopefully can bounce off some ideas with you in the future.

    Also a bit about myself. Followed your blog since long ago, then stop following your blog because just too many things in life going on. Then , the recent death of Scott Dinsmore, caused me to recall your name and I try to google you. Was happy to find that you are still highly active online and have even progressed and aged.

  • kok ming

    as a self help and science guy , I think your post is freaking belonging to the realm of enlightening one amongst the sea of popcorn self help articles i have seen. I have recommended your blog to two person i know where one is quite deep thinker cum writer and the second is someone whom I have met personally and have same beliefs as me.
    Thanks! really a lot of good stuff for me to reflect upon.

    Hopefully can bounce off some ideas with you in the future.

    Also a bit about myself. Followed your blog since long ago, then stop following your blog because just too many things in life going on. Then , the recent death of Scott Dinsmore, caused me to recall your name and I try to google you. Was happy to find that you are still highly active online and have even progressed and aged.

  • Scott Young

    Interesting. If you come up with any where the main thesis contradicts what is stated here, I can make a link to this article.

  • Scott Young

    Interesting. If you come up with any where the main thesis contradicts what is stated here, I can make a link to this article.

  • Stacey

    Cool. I’ll start looking through your older articles today.

  • Stacey

    Cool. I’ll start looking through your older articles today.

  • Douglas

    There is very strong scientific evidence that we don’t have free will, and this is confirmed subjectively by people who practice forms of careful introspection, such as mindfulness meditation, and are able to observe the mind as being composed of non-conscious processes reacting in various ways, with no ‘self’ controlling them.

    I don’t see how my point is moot, but perhaps I misphrased what I was saying: if you fully realize the non-existence of free will, you will be at peace, and you will have no choice but to be at peace. I don’t see how holding on to delusional beliefs can be beneficial.

  • Douglas

    There is very strong scientific evidence that we don’t have free will, and this is confirmed subjectively by people who practice forms of careful introspection, such as mindfulness meditation, and are able to observe the mind as being composed of non-conscious processes reacting in various ways, with no ‘self’ controlling them.

    I don’t see how my point is moot, but perhaps I misphrased what I was saying: if you fully realize the non-existence of free will, you will be at peace, and you will have no choice but to be at peace. I don’t see how holding on to delusional beliefs can be beneficial.

  • Douglas

    For someone that completed 4 years of MIT courses in 1 year, that was a pretty lazy response.

  • Douglas

    For someone that completed 4 years of MIT courses in 1 year, that was a pretty lazy response.

  • Jesse Clifton

    Case 1:
    We have free will and choose to believe in free will. Thus there is room for ethical responsibility and the possibility of making the world a better place. I think most people would agree this is a positive. Payoff > 0

    Case 2:
    We have free will and choose NOT to believe in free will. I think most would agree that living denial of one’s freedom is not the best way to live. There have even been studies which suggest not believing in free will makes us more likely to act unethically. Payoff < 0

    Case 3:
    We do not have free will. Choices mean nothing in this case so our Payoff is 0 or undefined.

    The only cases in which this discussion matters are 1 and 2, and clearly we want to be in Case 1.

    It's very difficult to stop thinking in terms of "Truth" and to start thinking in terms of payoff. Even if we grant that 'science shows we don't have free will' (and I don't grant that), it makes no sense to live a life in which you don't believe in free will. In a similar vein, it seems that ethics demands we take free will seriously even if there is only a tiny chance that it is true, as (again) giving up free will is giving up any hope of striving for a better life or a better world.

    It's those who choose determinism because it brings them peace who are giving up reasonableness for the comfort of delusion.

  • Jesse Clifton

    Case 1:
    We have free will and choose to believe in free will. Thus there is room for ethical responsibility and the possibility of making the world a better place. I think most people would agree this is a positive. Payoff > 0

    Case 2:
    We have free will and choose NOT to believe in free will. I think most would agree that living denial of one’s freedom is not the best way to live. There have even been studies which suggest not believing in free will makes us more likely to act unethically. Payoff < 0

    Case 3:
    We do not have free will. Choices mean nothing in this case so our Payoff is 0 or undefined.

    The only cases in which this discussion matters are 1 and 2, and clearly we want to be in Case 1.

    It’s very difficult to stop thinking in terms of “Truth” and to start thinking in terms of payoff. Even if we grant that ‘science shows we don’t have free will’ (and I don’t grant that), it makes no sense to live a life in which you don’t believe in free will. In a similar vein, it seems that ethics demands we take free will seriously even if there is only a tiny chance that it is true, as (again) giving up free will is giving up any hope of striving for a better life or a better world.

    It’s those who choose determinism because it brings them peace who are giving up reasonableness for the comfort of delusion.

  • Douglas

    It is you who are in fact living delusion. It is quite well accepted that the mind is a product of the brain, and the brain functions as the result of non-willed chemical and electrical processes, hence there is no room for the will in the scientific world view. In fact, discovery of neurological phenomena such as the ‘readiness potential’ demonstrate conclusively that our brain has already made up it’s mind about a decision even before we are aware that we’ve decided to act.

    I think you’re problem is that you are placing false importance on free will by thinking that a lack of free will would somehow negatively impact our life or our decision making. Think of a broom for example. My broom has a purpose, to clean my floor, and it serves this purpose well. It’s existence is quite essential, as without it, my floor would be filthy. It’s lack of free will has no impact on its value or it’s ability to carry out its purpose well. Likewise, if a person wishes to fulfill some life goals or follow a set of ethical principals, a lack of free will has no impact on their ability to do these thing. I am quite certain that if you accepted the non-existence of free will today, you might be a bit depressed for a while, but ultimately you would be able to continue striving for whatever you wish, knowing that even if you aren’t in control of your actions, your life can still be meaningful through the role you play in a much larger system.

    As for your suggestion that not believing in free will causes people to act unethically, it is possible that this is the case, but I would guess that this is largely a result of our culture which bases it’s system of morals around the ‘will’. I would be interested to see if the results wouldn’t be different if the experiment was repeated in a collectivist culture, where the idea of ‘will’ is not prominent and ethics are rather based around conforming to the needs and norms of society.

  • Douglas

    It is you who are in fact living delusion. It is quite well accepted that the mind is a product of the brain, and the brain functions as the result of non-willed chemical and electrical processes, hence there is no room for the will in the scientific world view. In fact, discovery of neurological phenomena such as the ‘readiness potential’ demonstrate conclusively that our brain has already made up it’s mind about a decision even before we are aware that we’ve decided to act.

    I think you’re problem is that you are placing false importance on free will by thinking that a lack of free will would somehow negatively impact our life or our decision making. Think of a broom for example. My broom has a purpose, to clean my floor, and it serves this purpose well. It’s existence is quite essential, as without it, my floor would be filthy. It’s lack of free will has no impact on its value or it’s ability to carry out its purpose well. Likewise, if a person wishes to fulfill some life goals or follow a set of ethical principals, a lack of free will has no impact on their ability to do these thing. I am quite certain that if you accepted the non-existence of free will today, you might be a bit depressed for a while, but ultimately you would be able to continue striving for whatever you wish, knowing that even if you aren’t in control of your actions, your life can still be meaningful through the role you play in a much larger system.

    As for your suggestion that not believing in free will causes people to act unethically, it is possible that this is the case, but I would guess that this is largely a result of our culture which bases it’s system of morals around the ‘will’. I would be interested to see if the results wouldn’t be different if the experiment was repeated in a collectivist culture, where the idea of ‘will’ is not prominent and ethics are rather based around conforming to the needs and norms of society.

  • Jesse Clifton

    I remain unconvinced that a broom lives a meaningfull life, but agree to disagree. (Well, I will choose to agree to disagree…I suppose you’ll do whatever your brain chemistry dictates =P)

  • Jesse Clifton

    I remain unconvinced that a broom lives a meaningfull life, but agree to disagree. (Well, I will choose to agree to disagree…I suppose you’ll do whatever your brain chemistry dictates =P)

  • One of the very few serious drawbacks I’ve found of having a blog is that it encourages beliefs to ossify. Especially for people who have disagreed with others online, it can be hard to change an opinion. Just imagine how hard it would be for someone like your friend Benny “the Irish Polyglot” to write that actually learning Chinese or Thai *is* a lot harder than German or Italian after all the heated online debates about the issue!

  • Mark

    One of the very few serious drawbacks I’ve found of having a blog is that it encourages beliefs to ossify. Especially for people who have disagreed with others online, it can be hard to change an opinion. Just imagine how hard it would be for someone like your friend Benny “the Irish Polyglot” to write that actually learning Chinese or Thai *is* a lot harder than German or Italian after all the heated online debates about the issue!

  • Johnny

    It’s great to see that your openly publish this stuff. Our ideas do change over time, especially from the ignorance of youth. When you look back, you’re embarrassed about your previous beliefs. You probably faultered at the Submit button for this post. I offer you props, bro.

  • Johnny

    It’s great to see that your openly publish this stuff. Our ideas do change over time, especially from the ignorance of youth. When you look back, you’re embarrassed about your previous beliefs. You probably faultered at the Submit button for this post. I offer you props, bro.

  • Nalley

    Hi Scott,

    Amazing article buddy! totally made my morning. I salute you for your honesty and my respect for you has rocketed! I’ve been following you ever since I was in high school. your MIT challenge was a source of inspiration for me and I’ve always kept you in the background of my head. I would recall your tips and methods every time things get hard in college and it gave me power and motivation. Most of your techniques worked with me others however didn’t. I’m a flexible person, when something is not working for me I know it and I change my belief about it. I keep changing until I find whatever resonates with my IQ and my personality. Yes, I intrinsically believed in IQ no matter how much people diss it. I’ve always felt that my genes package played a role in me grasping certain concepts.
    I happen to also be a writer in my mother language but I’ve stopped writing online ever since I got into college. I keep my writings for myself. You know why? because I keep changing my beliefs and my perceptions and without people knowing about them, change is a lot easier and I’m more honest with myself. I want to be honest with myself before anything else. I don’t want to be busy defending things I lost my heart for and just argue for the mere sake of arguing.

    people like you are rare, Scott. You are brave and this confirms my idea that you are just different than a lot of bloggers out there. I really respect your honesty. Honesty is the utmost thing one should value and secure.

  • Nalley

    Hi Scott,

    Amazing article buddy! totally made my morning. I salute you for your honesty and my respect for you has rocketed! I’ve been following you ever since I was in high school. your MIT challenge was a source of inspiration for me and I’ve always kept you in the background of my head. I would recall your tips and methods every time things get hard in college and it gave me power and motivation. Most of your techniques worked with me others however didn’t. I’m a flexible person, when something is not working for me I know it and I change my belief about it. I keep changing until I find whatever resonates with my IQ and my personality. Yes, I intrinsically believed in IQ no matter how much people diss it. I’ve always felt that my genes package played a role in me grasping certain concepts.
    I happen to also be a writer in my mother language but I’ve stopped writing online ever since I got into college. I keep my writings for myself. You know why? because I keep changing my beliefs and my perceptions and without people knowing about them, change is a lot easier and I’m more honest with myself. I want to be honest with myself before anything else. I don’t want to be busy defending things I lost my heart for and just argue for the mere sake of arguing.

    people like you are rare, Scott. You are brave and this confirms my idea that you are just different than a lot of bloggers out there. I really respect your honesty. Honesty is the utmost thing one should value and secure.

  • Scott Young

    Possibly. Benny has changed his opinion about a lot of things, but he’s tended to do it in a more subtle way (switching what he recommends) instead of flat-out declaring a switch in opinion like I have. Also, he was already quite successful as a language learner prior to starting his blog, so that seems to support my latter contention that those with more experience tend to change their opinions less (for good or bad).

  • Scott Young

    Possibly. Benny has changed his opinion about a lot of things, but he’s tended to do it in a more subtle way (switching what he recommends) instead of flat-out declaring a switch in opinion like I have. Also, he was already quite successful as a language learner prior to starting his blog, so that seems to support my latter contention that those with more experience tend to change their opinions less (for good or bad).

  • Scott Young

    I largely agree. But free will and the self are problematic concepts because they contain a lot of internal contradictions and areas where they break down.

  • Scott Young

    I largely agree. But free will and the self are problematic concepts because they contain a lot of internal contradictions and areas where they break down.

  • Scott Young

    I’ve read long and lengthy articles with much longer lists of citations exactly counter to your point (refined carbs bad, saturated fats/protein not bad). It’s not lazy to admit you don’t have the required background to tell who is right.

  • Scott Young

    I’ve read long and lengthy articles with much longer lists of citations exactly counter to your point (refined carbs bad, saturated fats/protein not bad). It’s not lazy to admit you don’t have the required background to tell who is right.

  • Daniel Dickson

    Love the intellectual honesty and intellectual humility. The web would be a way better place if more bloggers would write posts like this Scott. Thank you.

  • Daniel Dickson

    Love the intellectual honesty and intellectual humility. The web would be a way better place if more bloggers would write posts like this Scott. Thank you.

  • “Innate, immutable ability does matter for success”. What made you change your mind on this?

  • Guy Riese

    “Innate, immutable ability does matter for success”. What made you change your mind on this?

  • Jay Cross

    Regarding IQ: while I fully concede that IQ matters, is predictive, and has value as a scientific concept, I don’t see any benefit to individuals knowing their own.

    Seems to me it could only hurt. If it’s higher than you thought, you could become complacent. Lower, and you could get mired in self-doubt.

    Can you see any practical value in someone knowing their IQ?

  • Jay Cross

    Regarding IQ: while I fully concede that IQ matters, is predictive, and has value as a scientific concept, I don’t see any benefit to individuals knowing their own.

    Seems to me it could only hurt. If it’s higher than you thought, you could become complacent. Lower, and you could get mired in self-doubt.

    Can you see any practical value in someone knowing their IQ?

  • Douglas

    First of all, I never claimed that refined carbs were good, I specifically claimed that saturated fats in comparison to UNrefined carbs were bad. Regardless, you made a specific claim regarding diet (“vegetarian diets probably aren’t the healthiest”). If you don’t have the requisite knowledge to support or refute a claim regarding diet, why not just be intellectually honest and say “I don’t know which diet is healthiest”? Anyway, I could give you a much longer list of citations, but as I said before, the citations are irrelevant, it’s the quality of data that matters. If a study is based around subjective surveys, it’s bound to be inaccurate.

  • Douglas

    First of all, I never claimed that refined carbs were good, I specifically claimed that saturated fats in comparison to UNrefined carbs were bad. Regardless, you made a specific claim regarding diet (“vegetarian diets probably aren’t the healthiest”). If you don’t have the requisite knowledge to support or refute a claim regarding diet, why not just be intellectually honest and say “I don’t know which diet is healthiest”? Anyway, I could give you a much longer list of citations, but as I said before, the citations are irrelevant, it’s the quality of data that matters. If a study is based around subjective surveys, it’s bound to be inaccurate.

  • Douglas

    If you think I’m wrong, disprove me. I came here looking for a fight and all I get is a “lets agree to disagree”, come on, you can do better than that.

  • Douglas

    If you think I’m wrong, disprove me. I came here looking for a fight and all I get is a “lets agree to disagree”, come on, you can do better than that.

  • Matt

    Lower, and you could work harder, and higher, you could become self-confident?

  • Matt

    Lower, and you could work harder, and higher, you could become self-confident?

  • Matt

    You’re confusing free will (the ability to change your fate) with choice (the ability to use the facts at hand to make a decision).

    It’s perfectly possible to both make a choice and not have free will.

  • Matt

    You’re confusing free will (the ability to change your fate) with choice (the ability to use the facts at hand to make a decision).

    It’s perfectly possible to both make a choice and not have free will.

  • Jay Cross

    Fair counter-point. I suppose either are possible. In practice, though, I wonder how often those would be the emotional take-aways. Working harder in response to a low IQ would suggest high self-confidence. Perhaps enough that such a person wouldn’t care about IQ to begin with.

    I guess that’s the implicit assumption I’m making. Most people who really care about their IQ are probably insecure, and thus, likely to react counterproductively to the results.

    What evidence do I have? Admittedly, none. Just a psychological hunch.

  • Jay Cross

    Fair counter-point. I suppose either are possible. In practice, though, I wonder how often those would be the emotional take-aways. Working harder in response to a low IQ would suggest high self-confidence. Perhaps enough that such a person wouldn’t care about IQ to begin with.

    I guess that’s the implicit assumption I’m making. Most people who really care about their IQ are probably insecure, and thus, likely to react counterproductively to the results.

    What evidence do I have? Admittedly, none. Just a psychological hunch.

  • hariprabhu k

    Very good article ,contain all daily life tips for self improvement,or can say inspiration.Thank.

  • hariprabhu k

    Very good article ,contain all daily life tips for self improvement,or can say inspiration.Thank.

  • Paolo Usero

    Or you could just programatically add a disclaimer for any article that is 2 years or older that you may have newer opinions since those articles. Less work overall, and those articles can then redirect those people to your latest posts, or to present the possibility of subscribing to get your updated opinions/thoughts.

  • Paolo Usero

    Or you could just programatically add a disclaimer for any article that is 2 years or older that you may have newer opinions since those articles. Less work overall, and those articles can then redirect those people to your latest posts, or to present the possibility of subscribing to get your updated opinions/thoughts.

  • Mike Hall

    Good article. I am really interested in the good habits, signaling attempts. I really had to think about this one for a while before I decided to comment on it. When I smoked I probably quit a thousand time, but I knew deep in my mind that I wouldn’t actually stop. I didn’t until one day I just made up my mind that I had had enough and when I stopped that time there was no doubt in my mine that it was over, and it was. I have been having the same problem with learning Korean. I say I am going to do this or that and it never happens. Hopefully one of these days I will make up my mind to learn it and I will do what is needed.

  • Mike Hall

    Good article. I am really interested in the good habits, signaling attempts. I really had to think about this one for a while before I decided to comment on it. When I smoked I probably quit a thousand time, but I knew deep in my mind that I wouldn’t actually stop. I didn’t until one day I just made up my mind that I had had enough and when I stopped that time there was no doubt in my mine that it was over, and it was. I have been having the same problem with learning Korean. I say I am going to do this or that and it never happens. Hopefully one of these days I will make up my mind to learn it and I will do what is needed.

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